Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals. . Log in. According to Moscovici et al. [4], Informational influence, or persuasive arguments theory, has also been used to explain group polarization, and is most recognized by psychologists today. If the group … The study of group polarization can be traced back to an unpublished 1961 Master's thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift". These explanations were gradually narrowed down and grouped together until two primary mechanisms remained, social comparison and informational influence. (1972) interaction within a group and differences of opinion are necessary for group polarization to take place. This research was pioneered by James A. F. Stoner (1961), who first found the tendency in groups who were considering risk-taking behaviors; the phenomenon was thus initially labeled "risky shift." The theory posits that each group member enters the discussion aware of a set of items of information or arguments favoring both sides of the issue, but lean toward that side that boasts the greater amount of information. [21] While an extremist in the group may sway opinion, the shift can only occur with sufficient and proper interaction within the group. discussion leads a group to adopt attitudes or actions that are more extreme than the initial attitudes or actions of the individual group members Value polarization in 1992 does not, however, predict polarized affective reactions to the major party presidential candidates in 1996. leadership style and time constraints Group polarization results in: the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less. Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. Daniel Isenberg's 1986 meta-analysis of the data gathered by both the persuasive argument and social comparison camps succeeded, in large part, in answering the questions about predominant mechanisms. 2020; (ISSN: 1091 ... Neurons were polarization sensitive in large parts of the virtual sky that in some cells extended to the horizon in all directions. found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. Group polarization has been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps to account partially for violent behavior and conflict. asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology by Whelma. In particular, their punitive-damage awards tend to be far higher than the preferred award of the median member, before deliberation. [35], Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). [3] Similarly, studies have shown that after deliberating together, mock jury members often decided on punitive damage awards that were either larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favored prior to deliberation. The study of group polarization began with an unpublished 1961 Master’s thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift", meaning that a group’s decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. . have on group polarization, which is measured by forum participants’ sentiments. [16] Whichever position they held initially, people tended to hold that position more strongly after reading research that supported it. It would read as following, "Please check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. A to take the new job.". Result. For example: Kroner and Phillips (1977) compared murder rates for the year before and the year after adoption of capital punishment in 14 states. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making. Learn group polarization with free interactive flashcards. Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). This tendency also occurred when individual judgments were collected after the group discussion and even when the individual post-discussion measures were delayed two to six weeks. To study polarization in a population faced with rising inequality or a declining economy, we apply methods from cultural evolution and evolutionary game theory (24–27).This approach rests on the idea that each member of a large population uses a strategy p, which is the probability that they choose an interaction with an in-group member versus one with an out-group member. The presence of a member with an extreme viewpoint or attitude does not further polarize the group. Self-categorization theory stems from social identity theory, which holds that conformity stems from psychological processes; that is, being a member of a group is defined as the subjective perception of the self as a member of a specific category. 3 in 10 pairs, murder rates in 10 that the company prove... A defining aspect of polarization experienced that indicate whether the new company that offered him position... 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